Martin's Press, ; Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Purdue University; Using Evidence. Indiana University.
The following USC Libraries research guide can help you properly cite sources in your research paper:. The following USC Libraries research guide offers basic information on using images and media in research:. Listed below are particularly well-done and comprehensive websites that provide specific examples of how to cite sources under different style guidelines.
This is a useful guide concerning how to properly cite images in your research paper. This guide provides good information on the act of citation analysis, whereby you count the number of times a published work is cited by other works in order to measure the impact of a publication or author.
The links below lead to systems where you can type in your information and have a citation compiled for you. Note that these are not foolproof systems so it is important that you verify that the citation is correct and check your spelling, capitalization, etc. However, they can be useful in creating basic types of citations, particularly for online sources. When available, you should utilize these features because they not only generate a citation to the source [e.
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Citing Sources This guide provides advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition A citation is a formal reference to a published or unpublished source that you consulted and obtained information from while writing your research paper. Importance of a Citing your Sources Citations document for your readers where you obtained your material, a means of critiquing your study based on the sources you used, and an opportunity to obtain information about prior studies of the research problem under investigation.
Properly citing the works of others is important because: Proper citation allows readers to locate the materials you used. Citations to other sources helps readers expand their knowledge on a topic.
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In most social sciences disciplines, one of the most effective strategies for locating authoritative, relevant sources about a topic is to follow footnotes or references from known sources ["citation tracking"]. Citing other people's words and ideas indicates that you have conducted a thorough review of the literature on your topic and, therefore, you are reporting your research from an informed and critically engaged perspective. This increases your credibility as the author of the work. Other researcher's ideas can be used to reinforce your arguments. In many cases, another researcher's arguments can act as the primary context from which you can emphasize the significance of your study and to provide supporting evidence about how you addressed the "So What?
Cite Your Sources - Start Your Research - Library Guides at University of California, Santa Cruz
The ideas of other researchers can be used to explain reasons for alternative approaches. If you disagree with a researcher's ideas or you believe there is a gap in understanding the research problem, your citations can serve as sources from which to argue an alternative viewpoint or the need to pursue a different course of action.
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Ju st as the ideas of other researchers can bolster your arguments, they can also detract from your credibility if their research is challenged. Properly citing sources prevents your reputation from being tarnished if the facts or ideas of those cited are proven to be inaccurate or off-base. It prevents readers from concluding that you ignored or dismissed the findings of others, even if they are disputed. Ideas are considered intellectual property and there can be serious repercussions if you fail to cite where you got an idea from.
In research papers, in-text citations are most commonly used in the Introduction and Results sections. This resource provides detailed guidelines for citing sources in your paper and includes examples of in-text citation for reference by research authors. When referring to external work or referencing an entire work but not directly quoting the material, you only need to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your citation. The results of the first enzyme study Chen et al.
If you have referred to the author of the work in the sentence or earlier in the paragraph, you only need to include the year of publication in the citation. APA style requires authors to use past tense or present perfect tense NOT present tense when using signal phrases to refer to or discuss previous research. When referring to a specific work or works, place the citation publication date only directly after the author of the study referenced.
Klinge and Rogers found that mirroring is instrumental in developments of performative gender roles. When giving information that reflects the results or implications of previous work, place the citation author and publication date at the end of the sentence. Mirroring has been found to be instrumental in the development of performative gender roles Klinge and Rogers, Kazinsky, Include the page number in parentheses at the end of the quoted text.
Chapter 9.Citations and Referencing
Note that the quotation marks surround the text only, and not the parenthetical citation. Long direct quotations are those with at least 40 words of quoted text in a row. Long quotes should be placed in a separate block of lines without quotation marks , similar to creating a new paragraph. Begin the quotation on a new line and indent 0. Type the entire quotation within these new margins and using double-spacing. Include the parenthetical citation after the final punctuation mark. This tendency could be attributed to either a misunderstanding of correct methodology or to a feeling of freedom to explore different approaches that the researchers have yet to employ.
When paraphrasing the ideas of another work , you only need to cite the author and year of publication in your in-text citation. APA guidelines encourage this inclusion but do not require it.
When making an in-text citation of works by multiple authors, there are specific rules to follow depending on the number of authors of a work and the number of times you have cited these works. In your "Works Cited" or "References" you only list items you have actually cited in your paper.
In a "Bibliography" you list all of the material you may have consulted in preparing your essay, whether or not you have actually cited the work. A "Bibliography" may include any sources related to the topic of the research paper.
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The list of all citations is commonly organized in a single alphabetical list. Each different type of source--book, magazine article, journal article, newspaper article, article from a reference book, World Wide Web page--has a precise format that is specified by the given format MLA, APA or other. Reports citation, page numbers, docket number, name of the court, year of decision, Internet address, and date of accessing the site.
Example: Fullilove v. US Supreme Court. APA Case title, U. Reports citation, year of decision, and Internet address. Klutznick, U. Example: 42 US Code. Example: Carl D. Retrieved 13 February from LexisNexis Academic database.